How to start a Tilapia fish farming business in Congo
When you intend to start a tilapia fish farming business in Congo, you need to be determined and certain that this is the type of business you want to get into.
Know that it won’t be easy as there can be a lot of ups and downs. If you are sure; when challenges arise, you will have no regrets when meeting challenges.
Set up a Tilapia business plan
The main step to take when trying to start a tilapia farming business is to first write a business plan.
This business plan should contain your capital, the estimated amount or the cost of the feed. The amount of money you spent to purchase the tilapia fry. Amounts of money spent to buy or rent your land or fish pond site and other items.
The benefit of having a business plan is documenting your loss or gain in the business and knowing when you are missing something.
Machine For Making Fish Feed
Floating fish feed machine is the best choice for homemade fish feed and fish farms. With a floating fish feed extruder, you can use cheap local raw materials to produce high-quality feed and reduce feed costs.
Set up your fish farm and Tilapia fish ponds
Before bringing the things to eat for the tilapia fish, you need to build their ponds. Although some fish farmers prefer to rear their tilapia fish in ponds, others prefer to rear them in artificial ponds.
Here are the main steps you need to take to get a perfect fish farm or pond:
The location of the land
Find land closer to your target market for easy transportation of your product after harvest. Also the location of the land should be mobile to facilitate the movement of food or equipment.
The topography of the land
The topography of the proposed site should be generally flat with a gentle slope, which is very suitable for establishing a commercial tilapia fish farm with minimum financial investment.
Soil factors (it depends)
Some farmers prefer the concrete floor, some prefer to leave the pond terrestrial. Just be aware that the lower part of the earth must be clayey in other retention waters. But if the site is a sandy loam soil; still fine.
Hydrology of the territory
We all know that fish cannot live without water. So you should know that you should always provide a constant supply of water to your fish. Even if you change the water, you should still refill immediately.
Make a suitable water source, to fill your pond or if possible be aware that boreholes will also be constructed which should provide on-farm relief services especially during the dry season to keep your tilapia fish farm running for a while. all season of the years.
Plant cover or shade
You may want to consider planting a tree to provide shade for your tilapia fish. To activate a normal temperature for fish.
Prepare and manage your tilapia ponds
These are the necessary preparations to participate in your farm before bringing your fish.
Lime is used to purify the water or the substance. For your fish pond, you will use it to neutralize the acidic nature of the soil, promote the growth of phytoplankton, eliminate harmful bacteria, deposit soil particles suspended in the water. Also promote the formation of mineral elements necessary for the most favorable growth and progress of the tilapia fish.
Lime is usually diffused to the bottom of the pond at a rate of 450 kg to 500 kg per hectare and will be allowed to stay there for about two weeks. As soon as the pond construction is fully completed and the water control structures are in place, the ponds will then be limed using either agricultural lime or quicklime.
The application of fertilizer which can be organic fertilizer made from (cow dung, poultry waste, pig waste, etc.) or inorganic fertilizer (NPK, urea, superphosphate, etc.) can be used to fertilize the ponds.
These fertilizers are applied in ponds a week before storage and also help accelerate the growth of phytoplankton and zooplankton which are best known to be the natural food of farmed fish.
Stocking up on Tilapia fish
After preparing your fish pond, it is time to introduce your tilapia fish into your pond. The fish will be stocked at a rate of 10 to 50 fry per square meter for your fish depending on the production system. It is best to introduce tilapia fish into ponds in the early morning or late evening especially when the sunlight intensity is very low.
This is to avoid unnecessary stress which could lead to high fish mortality a few days after stocking.
Build a farm building and infrastructure
It is recommended that you build a residential dwelling on the site of your tilapia farm for the occupation of the workers, who will be available to feed and monitor the fish.
But if you think that this will not be necessary, it will not cost you anything either.
Feeding your Tilapia fish
The feed should be supplemented with specially formulated and compounded fish food to accelerate the growth of the fish to their upper limit capacity. Fish should be fed twice a day with their food at 5% of their body weight.
You can produce your own fish food if you wish, all you need is a feed mill unit including a hammer mill, mixer, dryer. Also a pelletizer capable of producing 0.5-5tons of feed per hour will be installed to produce the necessary fish feed for the farm. You can also sell your feed to other fish farmers who might be interested in buying it. This can also add an increase in dependency to your profit.
Tilapia hatching / reproduction
on the other hand to increase your profits and reduce the cost price for purchasing new fry, you can establish a breeding system for your tilapia fish. Be aware that Tilapia fish can produce an average of 100 to 150 fry per week if properly cared for)
When breeding, you need to keep in mind that you need to control the clutter. And also try as much as possible to always separate the fry from the breeders. The fry should be kept in a spacious pond to give them enough space for successful growth.
To increase your profits, you can also sell your finger to other anglers who are interested in it.
Water management in your Tilapia fish farm
You should regularly and frequently monitor the water in your pond.
The quality of the water with factors such as dissolved oxygen, acidity, carbon dioxide, iron, carbonates, nitrates, nitrites, ammonia, sulphide, chloride. Also temperature, alkalinity, total hardness, turbidity and conductivity must be appropriately monitored to ensure that they are maintained at the most favorable levels.
Growing Your Tilapia Fish
After following the above steps; After storing and feeding your tilapia fish with proper nutrition and management care, it will grow and mature for a period of 110 days.
Then you can sell your tilapia fish. Or, if you don’t want to hit the 110 days because you have a better size than you want your fish to be, you can sell it.
Catch your Tilapia fish
You can catch your fish by reducing the water level to a lower amount or by completely draining the water level in the pond. This can be done by the attendants or by yourself and it can be done by moving around with a dragnet to collect all the fish.
Marketing your Tilapia fish
It will be best if you prepare the buyers before draining them or your fish to prevent them from dying. Prepare buyers and know the market price to avoid losses.
You should know that Tilapia fish can be affected by bacterial or viral diseases if they are not given proper care. You must therefore take commercial action to protect your pond from such an event.
This can be done by cleaning your pond regularly, avoiding overcrowding, and examining your pond often for risk factors or symptoms.